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C'est forcément mal de vouloir être riche?
Is it actually that bad to want to be rich ?
Non, non, mais simplement, il faut essayer de regarder.
No, no, but it's just that you have to try and consider this.
Moi mon but c'est de voir comment on organise une société pour qu'il y ait le plus grand nombre de gens qui aient le plus d'opportunités possibles.
My aim is to look at how we organise society so that the largest number of people have as many opportunities as possible.
Et donc simplement on est obligé de regarder - on est obligé de regarder l'ensemble.
And therefore we simply have to consider - we have to consider the whole.
Mais ceux qui disent « voilà j'ai fait un succès, j'ai gagné trois millions, quatre millions, je n'ai pas envie de les donner à l'Etat ».
But those who say "there you go, I've been successful, I've earned three million, four million euros, I don't want to give it to the State."
Oui, oui.
Yes, yes.
Pourquoi est-ce que c'est mal de vouloir être riche, de vouloir le garder pour soi ?
Why is it bad to want to be rich, to want to keep it for oneself?
Il faut juste essayer de regarder l'ensemble : quelles sont les opportunités qui sont offertes à tout le monde ?
Well, we have to just try to consider the whole: which opportunities are offered to everyone ?
Donc concrètement, quand même, aujourd'hui la principale inégalité en France et en Europe c'est le chômage.
So in concrete terms, today the main inequality in France and Europe is unemployment.
On a un chômage des jeunes qui est terrible avec un quart de la population, un tiers de la population qui commence sa vie sans expérience professionnelle.
We have a terrible youth unemployment problem, with a quarter of the population, a third of the population who begins their life without any professional experience.
C'est une situation très grave.
It's a very serious situation.
Donc quels sont les systèmes de formation qu'on peut mettre en place, l'organisation du marché du travail, les services publics qu'on peut mettre en place, de façon à ce que le plus grand nombre de gens ait des opportunités ?
So which training systems can be put into place, how can we organise the job market, which public services can be put into place, so that the greatest number of people has opportunities?
Donc, après chacun peut dire « Bon, moi, voilà, je m'en fous, j'ai trouvé ma vocation.
Well anyone can say « Well, I don't give a damn, I've found my vocation ».
Bon mais je ne crois pas.
But I don't actually believe it.
D'ailleurs personne ne dit vraiment ça.
Nobody actually says that anyway.
Ce qui est intéressant dans les débats sur l'inégalité...parce que moi j'essaye, au-delà des statistiques, de remettre ces questions dans une histoire politique des débats sur l'inégalité qui sont dans la littérature, qui sont dans les débats parlementaires.
What is interesting in debates on inequality... because I try to go beyond the statistics to put these questions into the context of the political history of the debates on inequality that are found in literature or parliamentary debates.
Et les gens en général justifient l'inégalité non pas en disant, « bon, ben, je suis riche tant pis pour les pauvres » mais en disant, « je suis riche et c'est dans l'intérêt des pauvres ».
And people in general don't justify inequality by saying "Well I'm rich, tough luck for the poor", instead they say "I am rich and it's in the interest of the poor".
Donc, chacun... alors, souvent il y a de la mauvaise foi dans ces affirmations, ce n'est pas toujours vrai… Mais est-ce que ça peut être vrai ? …mais parfois ça peut être vrai.
So everyone... well often there is an element of dishonesty in these claims, it's not always the truth... But can't it be the true? …well sometimes it can be the truth.
Mais c'est ça qui est intéressant.
And this is what is interesting.
Est-ce que, ce que vous voulez, c'est une société totalement égalitaire il n'y a pas une tête qui dépasse ?
So do you want an egalitarian society in which there is no head to overtake?
Non, pas du tout, justement, mais c'est que les choses deviennent intéressantes.
No not at all, just, well that's where things get interesting.
Non, mais c'est que sur l'inégalité chacun essaye de justifier les choses.
Though, on the subject of inequality, everyone tries to justify things.
Personne ne dit « tant pis pour les pauvres».
Nobody says "tough luck for the poor".
Chacun essaye de trouver une justification qui soit dans l'intérêt général.
Everyone tries to find a justification that is in the public interest.
Et parfois c'est vrai, et parfois ce n'est pas vrai.
Sometimes it's the truth and sometimes it's not the truth.
Quand est-ce... comment on fait pour savoir ?
When… How can we find out?
Il n'y a pas de… il n'y a pas de formule mathématique.
There is no mathematic formula.
Tous ce qu'on a, c'est des expériences historiques, des expériences nationales, qui permettent de se faire une idée d'à partir de quand l'inégalité est excessive.
All we have to go by is past experiences in history, national experiences, which allow us to get an idea of when inequality becomes excessive.
Mais toutes les inégalités ne sont pas excessives.
But not all inequalities are excessive.
On a besoin aussi d'incitations, on a besoin d'innovation.
We need encouragement, we need innovation.
Simplement, au-delà d'un certain degré, l'inégalité ça ne sert pas a grand-chose.
Put simply, beyond a certain level, inequality doesn't serve much.
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Advanced | 24 Jan 2016 | Source: France 2 / Youtube, 9 Feb 2015 | Embed  

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Credits: Ilini uses dictionary data from Wiktionary via Wikdict and DBnary licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The following icons from www.flaticon.com are licensed by CC 3.0 BY: King, Headphones, Geography, Text Entry Box, Winner, Postbox, Info and Rubik icons by Freepik; "File" and "Contract" Icons by Vectors Market; List and Idea icons by Madebyoliver; Cardiogram icon by Pixel perfect; Theater and Gift icons by Pixel Buddha. Hat icon by Dimitry Miroliubov. Award by Vectors Market.
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