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Hommage maintenant au poète Aimé Césaire, disparu il y a 10 ans.
- And now, a tribute to the poet Aimé Césaire, who died 10 years ago.
Le documentaire "Césaire et moi" diffusé demain sur France Ô rend compte de l'œuvre et des combats du Martiniquais, père du concept de négritude.
The documentary "César and me" broadcast tomorrow on France Ô deals with the work and the struggles of the Martinican, father of the blackness concept.
Principale figure des Antilles françaises, auteur du "Cahier d'un retour au pays natal" publié en 1939, il lutta depuis les années 30 contre le colonialisme, le racisme.
Main figure of the French Antilles, author of "Return to My Native Land" published in 1939, he fought since the 1930s against colonialism, racism.
Sabrine Kasbaoui revient avec Arthur H, notamment, sur cette grande figure.
Sabrine Kasbaoui gives a perspective on this emblematic figure with the help of Arthur H.
- Je crois qu'il faut affranchir l'homme de la bêtise, de la stupidité, et de l'ignorance bien sûr.
- I believe that we must liberate man from idiocy, stupidity, and ignorance of course.
Il fut un poète colosse Aimé Césaire.
Aimé Césaire was a colossal poet.
S'il est mort il y a 10 ans, sa pensée et son œuvre restent d'une brûlante pertinence.
While he died 10 years ago, his thought and his work remain extremely relevant.
à Basse-Pointe en Martinique en 1913, Aimé Césaire est celui qui s'est emparé fièrement de son histoire en la revendiquant : ce sera la négritude.
Born in Basse-Pointe in Martinique in 1913, Aimé Césaire is the one who proudly took hold of his history by claiming it: this is Negritude.
Aimé Césaire c'est aussi l'homme politique qui n'a eu de cesse pendant près de 50 ans de lutter contre le racisme et le colonialisme.
Aimé Césaire is also the politician who has worked tirelessly for nearly 50 years to fight against racism and colonialism.
Un homme, enfin, qui a mené ses combats sans jamais se départir de sa plus belle arme, son éloquence et la beauté saisissante de sa langue.
Finally, he was a man who fought without ever giving up his most beautiful weapon, his eloquence and the striking beauty of his words.
"Embrasse moi jusqu'au nous furieux, embrasse, embrasse nous, mais nous ayant également mordu jusqu'au sang de notre sang mordus !"
"Kiss me until we are furious, kiss, kiss us, but also biting us to the blood of our bitten blood!"
- Cette langue, elle est née dans un endroit particulier quand même, qui est les Antilles, les Caraïbes, qui est un endroit extraordinaire parce que très fort visuellement, il y a des volcans, il y a l'océan, il y a des typhons, il y a des cyclones.
This language was born in a really particular place, which is the Antilles, the Caribbean, which is an extraordinary place since it is visually very powerful, there are volcanoes, there is the ocean, there are typhoons, there are cyclones.
C'est ce creuset absolument unique pour le français entre... vraiment entre l'Europe, l'Afrique et l'Amérique quoi.
This is an absolutely unique melting pot for French language between ... really at the crossroads of Europe, Africa and America.
La Martinique joue un rôle éminemment important dans l'œuvre d'Aimé Césaire par, effectivement, cet apport végétal, minéral, animalier aussi, assez unique sur l'île, cette richesse naturelle qu'il y a dans l'île.
Martinique plays a very important role in the work of Aimé Césaire, through this vegetal, mineral, animal contribution, which is quite unique on this island, the natural richness of this island.
Il faut pas oublier, non plus, que la Martinique, en 1913, c'est ni plus ni moins qu'une colonie avec ses injustices.
We must not forget, either, that Martinique was nothing more than a colony with all its injustices in 1913.
Vous avez en haut de l'échelle les Blancs, intermédiaires les mulâtres et en bas, les Noirs dont faisait partie Aimé Césaire.
At the top of the ladder were the Whites, then the Mulattos and below, the Blacks of which Aimé Césaire was a part.
Élève brillant, Aimé Césaire débarque à Paris pour étudier au lycée Louis Le Grand en 1931.
A brilliant student, Aimé Césaire arrived in Paris to study at the Louis Le Grand high school in 1931.
Il a déjà le combat chevillé au corps.
He already had a strong fighting spirit.
Un jour Césaire traverse à pied le boulevard Saint-Michel ; au volant, des étudiants d'extrême-droite lui lancent "avance sale nègre".
One day Césaire was walking across boulevard Saint-Michel when, while driving, far-right students shouted at him: "Go ahead dirty Negro".
La suite c'est lui qui la raconte.
Let's listen to him for the end of the story.
- Ben non ! Nègre vous m'appelez? Eh ben oui, nègre je suis ! N'allez pas le répéter mais le nègre vous emmerde !
- Well no! You are calling me Negro? Well yes, a Negro I am! Don't tell anyone, but the Negro says: screw you!
C'est à Paris, capitale culturelle de l'entre-deux-guerres qu'Aimé Césaire rencontre son frère d'armes, le poète, écrivain et homme d'État sénégalais Léopold Sédar Senghor.
It was in Paris, the cultural capital of the interwar period, that Aimé Césaire met his spiritual brother, the Senegalese poet, writer and statesman Léopold Sédar Senghor.
- Tout de suite, une très grande amitié est née entre nous, nous avons fondé un journal "L'Étudiant noir". Ça a été le coup de maître de Césaire, car nous avions transformé le bulletin de l'association des étudiants martiniquais en organe des militants de la négritude.
- Immediately, a very great friendship was born between us. We founded a newspaper, "The Black Student". It was Césaire's master stroke, because we had transformed the bulletin of the Martinican student association into the mouthpiece of Negritude activists.
En 1939, c'est dans la revue L'Étudiant noir, en pleine période coloniale, que Césaire publie son premier chef-d'œuvre : "Cahier d'un retour au pays natal".
In 1939, in the middle of the colonial period, Césaire published his first masterpiece "Return to my Native Land" in the The Black Student review.
Un poème dans lequel il élabore le concept de négritude.
A poem where he creates the concept of Negritude.
Le combat d'Aimé Césaire par la négritude donc c'est un combat littéraire, un combat culturel.
The fight of Aimé Césaire through Négritude is a literary fight, a cultural fight.
C'est de réaffirmer la place à laquelle le monde noir a droit dans le concert des nations, qui est aussi estimable que la culture chinoise, européenne, russe ou américaine et qui n'a pas à être niée ou réécrite par quelqu'un d'autre.
It aims to affirm the place that the black world should have in the concert of nations, which is as important as Chinese, European, Russian or American cultures and should not be denied or written by someone else.
"Il est beau et bon et légitime d'être nègre".
"It is beautiful and good and legitimate to be a Negro"
En 1941, Aimé Césaire et sa femme rentrent en Martinique.
In 1941, Aimé Césaire and his wife returned to Martinique.
Ils fondent la revue "Tropiques" qui va devenir le laboratoire poétique de Césaire.
They founded the review "Tropiques" which became the poetic laboratory of Césaire.
- Je rappelle qu'à l'époque c'est la littérature coloniale, les Blancs, qui décident ce qui est publié ou pas.
- I remind you that, at the time, literature was very colonial, the Whites were choosing what was published or not.
Et pour la première fois, des Noirs parlent entre eux, évoquent des sujets sur l'histoire du monde noir, de l'Afrique, de la culture, de la musique et de la poésie et sans aucune entrave dans une liberté la plus totale.
For the first time, Blacks talk to each other, discuss topics relating to the history of the black world, Africa, culture, music and poetry without any barrier, in total freedom.
- " l'aventure garde les yeux clairs, les femmes rayonnent de langage."
- "Where adventure keeps its eye clear, where women shine forth through language."
Il y a une espèce d'énergie dingue -dedans et aussi bon, " l'aventure garde les yeux clairs" ça veut dire... ça parle de l'enthousiasme, ça parle de la grâce.
There is a kind of crazy energy there and well, "where adventure keeps its eye clear" that means enthusiasm, that speaks of grace.
Après la Seconde Guerre Mondiale, Aimé Césaire entre en politique en devenant maire de Fort-de-France puis député.
After the Second World War, Aimé Césaire went into politics by becoming mayor of Fort-de-France and then deputy.
En 1950, il publie une autre de ses oeuvres phares : le "Discours sur le colonialisme".
In 1950, he published another of his flagship works: the Discourse on Colonialism.
- Il faudrait d'abord étudier, comment la colonisation travaille à "-civiliser" le colonisateur. À la bouture, au sens propre du terme, à le dégrader, à le réveiller aux instincts enfouis, à la convoitise, à la violence, à la haine raciale, au relativisme moral.
- We should first study how colonization works to "un-civilize" the colonizer. In the proper sense of the term, to degrade it, to awaken it to buried instincts, to lust, to violence, to racial hatred, to moral relativism.
- Pour Aimé Césaire, Il faut décoloniser les esprits, c'est à dire faire comprendre aux gens que le colonialisme est fondamentalement mauvais, aussi bien pour le colonisateur que pour le colonisé.
- For Aimé Césaire, It is necessary to decolonize the spirits, to make people understand that colonialism is fundamentally bad, both for the colonizer and for the colonized.
Parce que la France, faut pas oublier, la France, la grande République française de Marianne, la liberté-égalité-fraternité, l'héritière de la Révolution française, a envoyé des soldats en Afrique pour asservir des peuples.
Because France, we must not forget it, France, the great French republic of Marianne, liberty-equality-fraternity, the heir to the French Revolution, sent soldiers to Africa to enslave peoples.
Comment le processus de domination peut finalement soumettre le colonisé, mais aussi pervertir le colonisateur?
How can the process of domination subdue the colonized, but also pervert the colonizer?
Aimé Césaire restera député pendant près de 50 ans.
Aimé Césaire remained a deputy for almost 50 years.
- Beaucoup veulent réduire Aimé Césaire à une pensée martiniquaise ou antillaise, ce qui est faux.
- Many want to reduce Aimé Césaire to a Martinican or to a Caribbean line of thought, which is wrong.
C'est pour ça, il faut lire Aimé Césaire c'est la meilleure chose à faire.
That's why you have to read Aimé Césaire, it's the best thing to do.
Ce n'est pas un auteur de Martiniquais pour les Martiniquais.
He is not a Martinican author for Martinicans.
La pensée d'Aimé Césaire est universelle.
Aimé Césaire's thought is universal.
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Aimé Césaire, thinker of "blackness"

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Source: Entrée libre, Youtube, 18 Apr 2018

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