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L'appel du 18 juin 1940. Pourquoi? Comment?
The Appeal of 18 June. Why? How?
Devenu aujourd'hui le discours fondateur de la Résistance, découvrons de plus près cet appel lancé par un homme bien connu : le général Charles de Gaulle.
Today considered as the founding speech of the Resistance, let's discover this appeal launched by a well-known man: General Charles de Gaulle.
Remontons un peu le temps : tout commence ici au début de la Seconde Guerre mondiale.
Let's go back in time: it all started here at the beginning of World War II.
Le dictateur Adolf Hitler a imposé le nazisme à l'Allemagne.
The dictator Adolf Hitler imposed Nazism on Germany.
Ce régime inégalitaire, répressif et antisémite devient une menace pour les pays voisins.
This unjust, repressive, anti-Semitic regime quickly became a threat to neighboring countries.
Hitler rêve d'une grande Allemagne et veut conquérir l'Europe.
Hitler dreamt of a Greater Germany and wanted to conquer Europe.
Et il le fera, par la violence.
And he started doing it, through violence.
En septembre 1939, il envahit la Pologne.
In September 1939, he invaded Poland.
En réaction, la France et la Grande-Bretagne entrent en guerre mais rien n'arrête l'armée allemande qui attaque ensuite le territoire français.
In reaction, France and Great Britain went to war but nothing stopped the German army which attacked French territory.
C'est la panique, l'armée française ne parvient pas à bloquer l'avancée des chars ennemis.
It was panic, the French army failed to block the advance of enemy tanks.
Plus de huit millions de civils fuient sur les routes.
More than eight million civilians fled on the roads.
La percée allemande est tellement rapide que le 14 juin, les nazis défilent déjà dans Paris.
The German breakthrough was so fast that on June 14, the Nazis were already marching through Paris.
Désemparé, le gouvernement se réfugie à Bordeaux.
Distraught, the government fled to Bordeaux.
Parmi ses membres, le général De Gaulle, nommé quelques jours plus tôt, cherche des moyens pour poursuivre la lutte.
Among its members, General De Gaulle, appointed a few days earlier, wanted to keep on fighting.
Ainsi le 16 juin, il se rend en mission officielle à Londres et retrouve le premier ministre anglais Winston Churchill, convaincu lui aussi qu'il faut poursuivre le combat.
Thus, on June 16, he went on an official mission to London and met Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who was also convinced that the fight had to go on.
Pendant ce temps en France, les choses ont bien changé.
Meanwhile in France, things changed.
Le maréchal Philippe Pétain est désormais au pouvoir.
Marshal Philippe Pétain was now in power.
Véritable héros de la Première Guerre mondiale, Pétain apparaît comme le sauveur.
As he was a true hero of the First World War, Pétain appeared as the savior.
Mais de retour en France, Charles de Gaulle sait que le vieux maréchal ne veut qu'une seule chose : l'armistice.
But back in France, Charles de Gaulle understood that the old marshal only wanted one thing: armistice.
C'est-à-dire, suspendre les combats et se soumettre aux exigences des nazis.
That is, to suspend the fights and submit to the demands of the Nazis.
De Gaulle refuse ce choix et sans attendre, repart pour Londres le 17 juin.
De Gaulle refused this choice and left immediately to London on June 17.
Sur place Churchill l'accueille et le soutient dans sa lutte.
There, Churchill welcomed and supported him in his struggle.
De Gaulle agit dès le lendemain.
De Gaulle decided to act the following day.
Logé dans un petit appartement au centre de Londres, il rédige son appel.
Housed in a small apartment in central London, he wrote his appeal.
À 18h30, face au micro de la BBC, le général prononce son discours aujourd'hui célèbre.
At 6.30 p.m., facing the BBC microphone, the general delivered his now famous speech.
"Quoi qu'il arrive la flamme de la Résistance française ne doit pas s'éteindre et ne s'éteindra pas".
"Whatever happens, the flame of the French Resistance must not go out and will not go out".
Son premier appel à la résistance vient d'être lancé.
His first appeal to resistance had just been launched.
En France le message est peu entendu mais il est retranscrit le lendemain dans la presse.
In France the message was little heard but it was transcribed the next day in the press.
Quelques milliers d'hommes y répondent et rejoignent Londres clandestinement durant l'été.
Thousands of men answered the appeal and reached London illegally during the summer.
La situation est critique.
The situation was critical.
L'armistice a été signé le 22 juin et la France est divisée en différentes zones.
The armistice was signed on June 22 and France was divided into different zones.
En partie occupée par les forces allemandes, elle est pillée de ses ressources.
Partly occupied by German forces, it was plundered from its resources.
Le maréchal Pétain, qui a installé son gouvernement à Vichy, décide de collaborer avec les nazis.
Marshal Pétain, who installed his government in Vichy, decided to collaborate with the Nazis.
Le général De Gaulle est alors présenté comme un traître par la propagande officielle.
General De Gaulle was then presented as a traitor by official propaganda.
Mais quoi qu'il arrive, De Gaulle continue son combat.
But whatever happened, De Gaulle kept on fighting.
L'appel du 18 juin est le premier discours d'une longue série dans laquelle il appelle les Français à résister.
The June 18 appeal is the first speech in a long series which aimed to call on the French people to resist.
Au cours de l'été 1940, il devient le chef de la France Libre et grâce au soutien anglais une force armée tricolore voit le jour.
During the summer of 1940, he became the head of Free France and thanks to the English support a tricolor armed force was born.
Il s'appuie sur une partie de l'empire colonial pour continuer à se battre aux côtés des Alliés et lutter contre le nazisme.
He relied on parts of the colonial empire to keep on fighting alongside the Allies and against Nazism.
Célébré chaque année, l'appel du 18 juin est devenu le symbole de la lutte menée par l'ensemble des hommes et des femmes qui se sont battus pour que nous vivions aujourd'hui dans une France libre et démocratique.
Celebrated each year, the Appeal of 18 June has become the symbol of the struggle waged by all the men and women who fought for a free and democratic France.
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Credits: Ilini uses dictionary data from Wiktionary via Wikdict and DBnary licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. The following icons from www.flaticon.com are licensed by CC 3.0 BY: King, Headphones, Geography, Text Entry Box, Winner, Postbox, Info and Rubik icons by Freepik; "File" and "Contract" Icons by Vectors Market; List and Idea icons by Madebyoliver; Cardiogram icon by Pixel perfect; Theater and Gift icons by Pixel Buddha. Hat icon by Dimitry Miroliubov. Award by Vectors Market. Folder by Smashicons.
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